The Medicine is the native medicine of the Tamilians and has evolved gradually with the development of mankind. Siddhi means perfection. The siddhars who attained this perfection have recorded their investigations and medicaments in order to provide the Perfect State of Physical, Psychological, social and spiritual component to the human race. It can so be stated that Siddha medicine is the product of the Siddhars given with to attain perfect state of body and mind. Hence it is a mixture of Art, Philosophy and science.
The Quote from Thirumoolar emphasis about the Siddha medicine
“One that cures physical ailment is medicine
One that cures psychological ailment is medicine
One that prevents ailment is medicine
One that bestows immortality is medicine“
The medicine history dates back to time even before history was made.
The mediicne has 3 different methods of treatment-Mani, mantra and Aushadha – which is in turn based on the 5 elements-quoted in ”Mudinagarayar“.
”The sandy earth
The earth that covers it
The air formed by the ether
The prima fire from the air
Its contradictory water
Forms the nature“
Surgery was also a well developed faculty in siddha medicine.
Quoted in Kambaramayanam
”Incising the haematoma
blood letting was done
followed by cauterization and healthing it by external applications“.
Further Magnetotherapy was also prevalent during this period
”The piece of the spear –Left in the body was removed completely using magnet“
Siddha medicine was already well advance in Organ Transplant and Plastic Surgery.
”Quote from Kannappa Nainar
”For flesh it was flesh that was replaced
And fort he eye it was the eye.
Another famous advanced transplantation was the head transplant in the neuro surgery field
Sage Kapila was replaced with the head of a horse to utter a mantra to protect his head which would be shattered to pieces when he revealed the mantra.
Kabila was the father of Sankya philosphy and was a born siddhar.
The siddhars had investigated and studied fully the cause and effects of diseases, their diagnostic methods , mode of treatment and drugs inclusive of herbs, minerals, metals, poisions, and animal origin.
Siddha medicine advised the phsician to work with perception, inference and the instruction of the inspired which is very essential part of the treament and diagnosis (Agama).
1. Perception-by sense organs, by mind, by yoga, by pain or pleasure
2. Inference –by co-existence, by effect and by cause
3. Agama-the ancient philosophicalconcepts, text of the vedhas and shiva agamas, and the medical classics of the great siddhars form the 3rd part of the logic.
In Siddha medicine the Human principles are composed of 96 thatwas or basic principles.
Further the Siddha medicine classifies and treats individual on the basic of the 3 Humoural Theory (Thadus). This division on the humours leads to todays line of Physiology, Pathology and Treatment management.
The 3 Humours are Vadha, Pitha, kapha. The first phase in human life is attributed to Vadha, the middle to Pitha and the last Phase to Kapha.
When these 3 humours are in equilibrium they are called as called Thadus and when they are derranged then they are called as Kutras or Doshas. These humours are measured in different parts of the human body-but mostly on the wrist with a certain timing called Mathirai which represent their regularity and function.
Thus Vadha is said to have 1 mathirai, Pitha-1/2 mathirai and Kapha-1/4 mathirai. An abnormality in the mathirai levels the derrangement of the particular dosha and thus lead to the affected area and to specify the disease condition. The siddhars identified 4448 diseases.
The Science of Nadi reading was quite advanced and by reading ones pulse the siddha physicians could predict the different disease, or the exact time of delivery for a woman, or the time of death to an individual. Todays Classical medicine –uses gadgets such as the Electrocardiogram which can only read the heart condition.
Diagnosis and treatment with medicines was also an advanced characteristic of the siddha medicine. Accordingly they have 64 medicine divisions of which 32 are internal medicine and 32 are external applications.
The most important Advice of the medicine is The Diet.
”Proper diet according to the digestive fire, age of the individual, the season –helps to prevent illness“. Food and diet restrictions for t
the different seasons have also been advised in the manuscripts.
Treatment was given to keep the 3 dhosas in equilibrium and to maintain the 7 thathus. Hence the treatment was classified into
1. Devamaruthuvam-Divine method
2. Manuda maruthuvam-Rational (human) method
3. Asura maruthuvam-Surgical (demonic) method
Further Fasting therapies and Steam therapies are also advised depending on the disease, age and condition of the individual.
Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Paediatrics medicine was also well developed in the siddha medicine which also speaks about midwives to help during the Delivery.
Saint Thirumoolar speaks about the formation of the zygote from day 1 and Sage Agasthiyar and Yugimuni speak about the normal Foetal development.
Gynecology medicine was described by Saint Yugimuni who speaks of 20 different types of diseases of the uterus. He has also explained in detail about the different types of uterine tumours and their treatment. Menstrual disorders and Male and Female Infertility have also been dealt in detail in his works.
Paediatrics-Diseases of children were classified according to their causes as Internal and External diseases. The diseases that can affect different age groups and their treatment and medicine has been elaborately explained under the heading of Bala Vagadam.
Surgery-The literatures spealk of advanced surgery techniques like removal of abscess or foreign bodies, wounds were drained using a special drainage technique, tight bandagint to promote bone union, cauterization of wounds, cupping blood letting, venesection and probing of fistula.
An astonishing fact that Siddhar Therayar did a craniotomy to remove the abscess from the brain has been recorded in his works. Opthalmic surgery for cataract also and is recorded in ”Agasthiyar Nayana Vidhi“ and ”Nagamuni Nayana Vidhi“. As many as 26 surgical instrucments were explained by Agasthiyar in this book . The book also emphasises that the eye is considered the most vital organ of perception and ist he component of the bhoodha fire. Description of the normal eye, its care, diseases and its cure and surgery.
The Speciality of the Siddha medicine is the preparation and use of Kaya Kalpa medicine- which is the medicine to restore Immortality. All other medicines are directed towards curative health and few to some extent of preventive methods. But only siddha uniquely aims at Kaya Kalpa techniques. Kaya means body and Kalpa means stone like-hence meaning to maintain the body as strong as a stone so that it is not affected by disease or ageing process or death.
Quote from Saint Thirumoolar who insists the need for good health for Attaining Moksha or Salvation-
”Destruction of body leads to destruction of soul
Attainment of salvation then becomes impossible
Learning the process of body care
Helps to preserve my body and thereby my soul.“
Quote from Saint Avvai-
”The strength of the body ist he strength of the soul“
Kalpa preparations follow 2 classification
1. Kalpa aviltham-kalpa medicine
2. Kalpa Yogam
Kalpa Aviltham are certain internal medicines or herbs or preparations taken for a certain amount of days with certain restrictions-by gradually tapering or increasing the dose of the intake.
Siddhar Thirumoolar and Karuvoorar insist on 108 Rejuvanating herbs.
Muppu was a kind of kaya kalpa salt preparation known only to the siddha science.
Amuri Tharani- Urine Therapy-was also advised to be a form of kaya kalpa therapy –as it is considered to be a high percentage of hormones.
Kalpa Yogam-The norms of life and yogic practices help in the process of Rejuvanation that bestows immprtality and are classified into 2 types-Atta Yogam and Raja Yogam.
Saint Thirumoolar and other siddhars have laid great importance on the Yogic practices for a health living and to attainment of Salvation. Saint Pathanjali and Saint Thirumoolar have emphasised the specific 8 steps of Yoga-i.e. Iyama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Prathiyakara, Dharana, Thiyana and Samadhi
Yoga helps to restrain the monkey mind from jumping from one idea to another and trains it to follow a certain path. It cleans out the mind and brings it back to its natural Pure State and helps it to attain the Samadhi state where one identifies himself with the super consciousness.
Raja Yoga-The Art of following the above Yoga Stepps and to wake up the Sleeping Kundalini Serpet power and to raise it through the 6 chakras and retain it in the Agnai. This then leads the mind to flow towards it which results in Attainment of Self Realisation.
Veterinary Medicine-Diseases of Animals their food habits, restrictions and treatment have been explained by the siddhars in their texts.
Thus Siddha medicine plays a Major Role in the Siddha System of Science. It aims at treating the Root Cause of a disease and not just a symptomatic control. Treating the Basic Reason helps to eradicate the disease totally, whereas a symptomatic treatment helps to provide a Present Relief leading to further damage of the body which then later leads to Side Effects and Death. The Kaya Kalpa procedure in siddha medicine is the oldest prescribed method to heal and maintain ones body and mind fit and to attain immortality.
The Siddhars had undertaken this process and could live many Yugas and thousand of years to achieve their goal and to give their useful knowledge and this Siddha Science to the world.